What is a CRAAP Test?

In the sciences discipline at a university level, researching consumes a lot of time and effort in order to determine whether or not the journal article you have chosen is reliable and credible source. To determine this, it important to perform a CRAAP Test. CRAAP is an acronym for Currency, Relevance, Authority, Accuracy, and Purpose. At my university, we are always encouraged to use the CRAAP Test to evaluate sources.

Currency: the timeliness of the information

  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • Is the information current or out-of date for your topic?
  • Are the links functional?   

Relevance: the importance of the information for your needs

  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (i.e. not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is one you will use?
  • Would you be comfortable using this source for a research paper?

Authority: the source of the information

  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  • Are the author’s credentials or organizational affiliations given?
  • What are the author’s credentials or organizational affiliations given?
  • What are the author’s qualifications to write on the topic?
  • Is there contact information, such as a publisher or e-mail address?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source?
    •  examples:
      • .com (commercial), .edu (educational), .gov (U.S. government)
      • .org (nonprofit organization), or
      • .net (network)

Accuracy: the reliability, truthfulness, and correctness of the content

  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed or refereed?
  • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
  • Does the language or tone seem biased and free of emotion?
  • Are there spelling, grammar, or other typographical errors?

Purpose: the reason the information exists

  • What is the purpose of the information? to inform? teach? sell? entertain? persuade?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact? opinion? propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional, or personal biases?

If you found this article helpful towards developing your research skills and determining the credibility of a source then like this post and feel free to share your thoughts in the comments!


Benedictine University 2021, Evaluating Sources: The CRAAP Test, Benedictine Universiy Library, United States of America, viewed 04 February 2022, <https://researchguides.ben.edu/source-evaluation>.

For more information on determining whether or not the source you have in mind is useful, check out the UniSA College Foundation Studies Library.